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An Introduction to the Tech Stacks of Web Development

There are multiple tech stacks to choose from when it comes to developing a product online. This may be a website, a blog, a web store, an application or anything that you want to build-up on the web. A tech stack means the collection and combination of programming languages, frameworks, and tools used by the developers to create a mobile or web application. There are two major components of an application, the front end, and the back end, also known as the client-side and the server-side.

Today, there is a vast choice in the world of web development. As a creative web developer, you may want to choose something that new and trendy and try it out. But if you are looking to get hired as a freelance web developer, always make sure to use the skills that you are well-versed with. Unless you have mastered the new tools, do not experiment the same on the client websites.

Initially, probably a decade ago, things were much simpler. In the front end, developers used ASP.NET, and on the back end, they used SQL Server. Amidst this, they’d implement .NET in the middle. But over the years, with rising complexities and innovations, there is a lot of choice in the software products.

With the rise in choice, the responsibility of the developers has also increased. Today, there is much more than just the development of functional software. One has to assure the scalability, maintenance, and security of the application to comply with client needs. Today, each and every application has a complete plan before they choose their tech stack.

There are three major steps involved in order to plan a web development project. However, you should know the business perspective of the project in order to allocate the elements for the stack.
Understanding the tech stack

1. Client-side – Front End

As the name says it all, this is where the real interaction takes place. The users interact with the website or the application in the front end. There are three main technologies used in front end web development. HTML (the markup language), CSS (the stylesheet), and JavaScript (a browser scripting language).

There are two front-end JavaScript popular today, i.e., ReactJS by Facebook and AngularJS by google. These frameworks let you create highly interactive user-interfaces. Both of them independent in their language. Thus, it does not matter at all about what tech stack you use on the server-side or the back end. Twitter’s Bootstrap is a popular framework for CSS right from its launch due to the presence of interactive components built on jQuery.

When building applications, the use of native languages is more in trend since it gives better control and hardware access for the developers. For the same reason, Java is used in Android and Swift or Objective C is used in iOS.

2. Server-side (Backend)

The back end comprises a server, database, and application. It is the end where developers perform programming functions as per the business logic, working with the database, the server end hosting and deployments, etc.

This end is also responsible for responding to user requests. Developers access the database and implement simple CRUD operations, i.e., Create, Read, Update and Delete.

Python and LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) are the most popular backend stacks that the developers use.
Python-Django framework is popular among the entrepreneurs to whip up a quick working prototype.

JavaScript, a simple scripting language a while ago is a popular server-side programming language today. The JavaScript’s MEAN has gained has vast popularity lately.

MEAN is the acronym to MongoDB, Express.js, Angular.js, and Node.js. MongoDB is the NoSQL database. The Express and Node run on the backend while the Angular.js extracts the interface.

3. Middleware

In between the two ends, there are application servers, web servers, content management systems, and various other tools to support the application of web development. These are mostly written in Java and C++. The middleware helps in communication and data management between the front end and back end tech stacks. Thus, it is also termed as a ‘Software Glue.’

The middleware technologies include CICS, TIBCO, MQ, and Virtua. It functions as a hidden layer connecting the two applications together. It also plays a vital role in processing real-time actions. Thus, it more than just communicating the data to the ends and stands highly imperative.

Also, read our previous blog- Tips To Get Hired As A Freelance Web Developer 

Final words

The domain of web development is considerably expanding in recent times. It has a great scope in terms of freelancing. A lot of companies look forward to hiring freelancing web developers. They look upon their qualifications, experience, knowledge, and skills. Expertright is an excellent platform to register and gain leads. It helps the clients hire web designers and support them with their business needs.